Objective. To evaluate the factors associated with postpartum ovarian resumption and follicular dynamics in Holstein cows under high altitude conditions (2,600 masl). Materials and methods. Forty-five Holstein cows were studied between 14 days before and 120 days after calving. Uterine involution, follicular dynamics, serum progesterone and peripartum pathologies were evaluated; additionally, body condition (BC), calving type, milk yield, were also evaluated. According to hormonal and reproductive findings, cows were classified into two groups: early ovarian resumption (EOR) or delayed ovarian resumption (DOR). Results. The occurrence of the first follicular for EOR animals (n=31) was produced on average 9.58±3.45 days postpartum and was similar to the DOR group (n=10) [10.8±4.83 days; p>0.05)]. The first postpartum ovulation occurred at 21.55±5.90 days (EOR) and was significantly delayed (48.7±27.85 days) for DOR animals (p<0.05). Thirty-six point five percent of the cows (n=f) had normal estrus cycles (18 to 24 days), while 63.5% (n=26) showed dysciclia. The factors associated with ovarian resumption and cyclicity were the loss of BC [OR=3.3, CI 95% (1.2-13.3) (p<0.05)] and lameness [OR= 9.0, CI 95% (1.2-13.3) (p<0.05)]. Conclusions. Although the emergence of postpartum follicular waves was observed early, under the experimental conditions of this study there are factors that may affect the first ovulation favoring the occurrence of anovulatory conditions. The determinant factors were low body condition and lameness.
Wullepit N, Hostens M, Ginneberge C, Fievez V, Opsomer G, Fremaut D, et al. Influence of a marine algae supplementation on the oxidative status of plasma in dairy cows during the periparturient period. Prev Vet Med 2012; (103):298-303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.09.007
Shrestha HK, Nakao T, Suzuki T, Akita M, Higaki T. Relationships between body condition score, body weight, and some nutritional parameters in plasma and resumption of ovarian ciclicity postpartum during pre-service period in high producing dairy cows in a subtropical region in Japan. Theriogenology 2005; (64):855-866. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.12.007
Gümen A, Wiltbank MC. Length of progesterone exposure needed to resolve large follicle anovular conditions in dairy cows. Theriogenology 2005; (63):202-218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2004.04.009
Vassena R, Adams GP, Mapletoft R, Pierson RA, Singh J. Ultrasound image characteristics of ovarian follicles in relation to oocyte competence and follicular status in cattle. Anim Reprod Sci 2003; (76):25-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4320(02)00234-8
Noseir W. Ovarian follicular activity and hormonal profile during estrous cycle in cows: the development of 2 versus 3 waves. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2003; (1):2-6.
Adams GP, Jaiswal R, Singh J, Malhi P. Progress in understanding ovarian follicular dynamics in cattle. Theriogenology 2008; (69):72–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2007.09.026
Garbarino EJ, Hernández JA, Shearer JK, Risco CA, Thatcher WW. Effect of lameness on ovarian activity in postpartum holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 2004; (87):4123-4131. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73555-9
Santos JE, Cerri RL, Ballou MA, Higginbotham GE, Kirk JH. Effect of timing of first clinical mastitis occurrence on lactational and reproductive performance of Holstein dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 2004; (80):31-45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4320(03)00133-7
Ahmadzadeh A, Frago F, Shafii B, Dalton JC, Price JC, McGuire MA. Effect of clinical mastitis and other diseases on reproductive performance of Holstein cows. Anim Reprod Sci 2007; (10):1016-24.
Pinzón C. Evaluación de los niveles de progesterona y la dinámica folicular en vacas Holstein postparto en el trópico bajo (Estudio de caso). Bogotá. Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y de Zootecnia, 2001.
Olivera M, Henao D, Carrillo LM. Comportamiento durante el calor y dinámica folicular interestral en vacas BON (Blanco Orejinegro). Rev Col Cienc Pec 2003; 17(1):39-44.
Ceballos A, Villa NA, Betancourth T, Roncancio D. Determinación de la concentración de calcio, fósforo y magnesio en el periparto de vacas lecheras en Manizales, Colombia. Rev Col Cienc Pec 2004; 17(2):125-133.
Galvis RD, Agudelo D, Saffon A. Condición corporal, perfil de lipoproteínas y actividad ovárica en vacas Holstein en lactancia temprana. Rev Col Cienc Pec 2007; 20(1):6-29.
Instituto Geográfico Agustín Codazzi (IGAC). Cundinamarca, características geográficas. Santafé de Bogotá. 2004.
Leroy JL, Vanholder T, Delanghe JR, Opsomer G, Van Soom A, Bols PE, et al. Metabolic changes in follicular fluid of the dominant follicle in high Fielding Dairy cows early postpartum. Theriogenology 2004; (62):1131-1143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2003.12.017
Walsh RB, Kelton DF, Duffield TF, Leslie KE, Walton JS, LeBlanc SJ. Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum anovulatory condition in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2007; (90):315-324. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)72632-2
Shrestha HK, Nakao T, Higaki T, Suzuki T, Akita, M. Resumption of postpartum ovarian cyclicity in high producing Holstein cows. Theriogenology 2004; 61(4):637-649. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(03)00233-4
Zambrano JL. Studies in the superovulatory response to gonadotropins and folliculogenesis of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). [Tesis de Doctorado] Davis, Estados Unidos: Universidad de California; 2009.
Fortune JE, Rivera GM, Yang MY. Follicular development: the role of the follicular microenvironment in selection of the dominant follicle. Anim Rep Sci 2004; (82):109-126.
Hannan MA, Fuenzalida MJ, Siddiqui MA, Shamsuddin M, Beg MA, Ginther OJ. Diurnal variation in LH and temporal relationships between oscillations in LH and progesterone during the luteal phase in heifers. Theriogenology 2010; (74):1491-1498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.06.021
López H, Sartori R, Wiltbank M. Reproductive hormones and follicular growth during development of one or multiple dominant follicles in cattle. Biol Reprod 2005; (72):788-795.
Wiltbank W, López H, Sartori R, Sangsritavng S, Gümen A. Changes in reproductive physiology of lactating dairy cows due to elevated steroid metabolism. Theriogenology 2006; (65):17-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2005.10.003
López H, Sartori R, Wiltbank M. Type of estrus cows. Theriogenology 2004; (81):209-223.
Palmer M, Olmos G, Boyle L, Mee J. Estrus detection and estrus characteristics in housed and pastured Holstein-Friesian cows. Theriogenology 2010; (74):255-264. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.theriogenology.2010.02.009
Pérez-Marin CC, Espa-a F. Oestrus expression and ovarian function in repeat breeder cows, monitored by ultrasonography and progesterone assay. Reprod Dom Anim 2007; (42):449-456.
Tanaka T, Arai M, Ohtani S, Uemura S, Kuroiwa T, Kim S, et al. Influence of parity on follicular dynamics and resumption of ovarian cycle in postpartum dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 2008; (108):134-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2007.07.013
Sakaguchi M, Sasamoto Y, Suzuki T, Takahashi Y, Yamada Y. Postpartum ovarian follicular dynamics and estrous activity in lactating dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2004; (87):2114-2121. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)70030-2
Lopez H, Satter LD, Wiltbank MC. Relationships between level of milk production and estrous behavior of lactating dairy cows. Anim Reprod Sci 2004; (81):209-223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2003.10.009
Reist M, Erdin D, VonEuw D, Tschümperlin K, Leuenberger H, Hammon H, et al. Postpartum reproductive function: association with energy, metabolic and endocrine status in high yielding dairy cows. Theriogenology. 2003; (59):1707-1723. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0093-691X(02)01238-4
Garbarino EJ, Hernandez JA, Shearer JK, Risco CA, Thatcher WW. Effect of lameness on ovarian activity in postpartum Holstein cows. J Dairy Sci 2004; (87):4123-4131. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73555-9
Bertoni G, Trevisi E, Han X, Bionaz M. Effects of inflammatory conditions on liver activity in puerperium period and consequences for performance in Dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 2008; (91):3300-3310. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-0995