Objective. Assess the genetic diversity in four brood stocks and one juvenile stock of curimba Prochilodus lineatus in a Hydropower plant in São Paulo - Brazil, using the Tietê River stocking program. Materials and methods. Five RAPD primers were used to amplify the extracted DNA from 150 fin-clip samples. Results. Fifty-nine fragments were polymorphic, 52 had frequencies with significant differences (p<0.05), 45 had low frequencies, 54 were excluded, and two were fixed fragments. High values for polymorphic fragments (71.19% to 91.53%) and Shannon index (0.327 to 0.428) were observed. The genetic divergence values within each stock were greater than 50%. Most of the genetic variation was found within the groups through the AMOVA analysis, which was confirmed by the results of the identity and genetic distance. High ancestry levels (FST) among the groups value indicated high and moderate genetic differentiation. The estimates of number of migrants by generation (Nm) indicated low levels of gene flow. High and moderate genetic divergence between groups (0.58 to 0.83) was observed. Conclusions. The results indicate high variability within the stocks, and genetic differentiation among them. The fish stocks analyzed represent a large genetic base that will allow the fish technicians to release juveniles without genetic risks to wild populations present in the river. These genetic procedures may be used as models for other migratory species, including those threatened by extinction.
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