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Bentonita como adsorbente de arsénico y plomo en el tracto digestivo de bovinos: estudio in vitro

Bentonite as an arsenic and lead adsorbent in the bovine digestive tract: an in vitro study



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Fuentes-de María Torres, M. T. ., Ramírez-Bribiesca, J. E., Castro-González, N. P. ., Crosby-Galván, M. M. ., Pinto-Ruiz, R. ., & Hernández-Sánchez, D. (2024). Bentonita como adsorbente de arsénico y plomo en el tracto digestivo de bovinos: estudio in vitro. Revista MVZ Córdoba, 29(1), e3365. https://doi.org/10.21897/rmvz.3365

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Marco Tulio Fuentes-de María Torres
Jacinto Efrén Ramírez-Bribiesca
Numa Pompilio Castro-González
María Magdalena Crosby-Galván
René Pinto-Ruiz
David Hernández-Sánchez

Marco Tulio Fuentes-de María Torres,

Colegio de Postgraduados, Posgrado de Ganadería, Texcoco, México.


Jacinto Efrén Ramírez-Bribiesca,

Colegio de Postgraduados, Posgrado de Ganadería, Texcoco, México.


Numa Pompilio Castro-González,

Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ingeniería Agrohidráulica, Tlatlauquitepec, México.


María Magdalena Crosby-Galván,

Colegio de Postgraduados, Posgrado de Ganadería, Texcoco, México.


René Pinto-Ruiz,

Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas, Villaflores, México.


David Hernández-Sánchez,

Colegio de Postgraduados, Posgrado de Ganadería, Texcoco, México.


Objetivo. Determinar la dosis recomendable de bentonita como quelante de arsénico (As) y plomo (Pb) en el medio ruminal, abomasal y duodenal mediante un sistema in vitro, considerando las variables de fermentación ruminal y el efecto adsorbente de As y Pb. Materiales y Métodos. Se prepararon viales con 50 mL de medio anaerobio y 0.5 g de alfalfa como sustrato. Los medios se adicionaron con 1.01 y 1.95 ppm de As y Pb, respectivamente. Los tratamientos consistieron en el nivel de bentonita (B) adicionada al medio, B-0%, B-1.5%, B-3.0% y B-4.5%. Los medios se incubaron durante 24 h y se midió el pH, producción de AGV, N-NH3, degradabilidad in vitro de MS (DIVMS) y efecto quelante de la bentonita, simulando las condiciones del rumen, abomaso y duodeno. Se usó un diseño completamente al azar y contrastes ortogonales. Resultados. La bentonita no modificó el pH ni la proporción molar de AGV (p>0.05), pero la producción total de AGV presentó un efecto lineal negativo al aumentar el nivel del mineral.  Asimismo, el N-NH3 disminuyó (p<0.05) al adicionar bentonita. La DIVMS fue menor con B-3.0% y B-4.5% (52.36b y 49.74b%) en comparación con B-0% y B-1.5% (62.30a, 61.98ª). La inclusión de B-1.5% y B-4.5% mejoró (p<0.05) la adsorción de As y Pb en el medio ruminal, abomasal y duodenal. Conclusiones. La proporción de bentonita recomendable como quelante de As y Pb es de 1.5%, ya que la dosis de 4.5% afectan la DIVMS y por consiguiente, la productividad animal.


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