Evaluación reproductiva y costos en programas de empadre estacional con Bos indicus en trópico mexicano

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Autores

José Francisco Martínez-Albarrán http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3844-4489 Carlos Salvador Galina-Hidalgo http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1020-7027 Ivette Rubio-Gutiérrez http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9036-1747 Wendy Leticia Balam-Villarreal http://orcid.org/0000-0001-5805-4560 Manuel D. Corro-Morales http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8149-6831

Resumen

Objetivo. Comparar el desempeño reproductivo de vacas Bos indicus posparto y abiertas, así como evaluar el costo de retener vacas vacías al final de una temporada de empadre en el trópico mexicano. Material y métodos. Se incluyeron 128 vacas Bos indicus, 87 vacas posparto (PP) con ≤90 días posparto y 41 vacas abiertas (OC) con >90 días abiertos. El estudio se dividió en tres fases: 1) Sincronización de celos (día 0-10) e inseminación a tiempo fijo (FTAI), 2) Detección de celos e IA (día 11-45) y 3) Monta natural (día 46-90). Para la primera fase, todos los animales fueron sincronizados inseminados FTAI (día 10). Las vacas que mostraban signos de estro (día 11-45) fueron inseminadas (IA). Las vacas abiertas durante las dos fases anteriores fueron expuestas al toro. Resultados. La tasa de gestación en la fase 1 fue 58.6 y 34.1% (p<0.01), para PP y OC, respectivamente. Durante la fase 2, el porcentaje de gestación fue 42.5% (p>0.05), mientras que en la fase 3, la tasa de preñez fue 44.2% (p>0.05). El costo de una vaca OC fue tres veces más que las vacas PP. Conclusiones. La tasa de preñez durante la primera etapa, de la estación reproductiva, fue mayor para vacas PP que vacas OC. Al final de la estación reproductiva la tasa de gestación fue 80 %. El costo beneficio de retener animales no preñados después de una corta temporada de empadre no es económicamente factible para una unidad de producción vaca-becerro.

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