Enfermedades bacterianas y sus agentes etiológicos identificados en peces de México - Una Revisión

Enfermedades bacterianas en peces de México

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Frida M. Alcántara-Jauregui
Benjamín Valladares-Carranza
Cesar Ortega
Resumen

Este trabajo concentra la información bibliográfica existente acerca de las bacterias aisladas y/o identificadas a partir de peces de México. El análisis muestra que el estudio de la sanidad de peces del país es relativamente reciente, y describe el aislamiento de varios géneros bacterianos obtenidos tanto de peces clínicamente enfermos como subclínicos, con alta frecuencia de bacterias oportunistas; asimismo se muestra que en la última década se ha confirmado la presencia de bacterias emergentes causando enfermedad septicémica en peces cultivados. En ambiente de agua dulce Flavobacterium psychrophilum, Yersinia spp., Weissella ceti y Lactococcus garviae han causado enfermedad septicémica en trucha arcoíris (Oncorhynchus mykiss), mientras que Francisella orientalis, Streptococcus iniae y Mycobacterium spp. han afectado a tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). En ambiente salino únicamente Nocardia seriolae se reporta como causa de enfermedad sistémica en corvina roja (Sciaenops ocellatus). Pese a la disponibilidad de esta información, la situación sanitaria de la piscicultura del país no es reconocida; sin embargo, la ocurrencia de las enfermedades bacterianas emergentes aquí reportadas, muestran la necesidad de conocer su distribución en el país.

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